Research and experimental development (R&D) is creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humankind, culture and society, and to devise new applications based on existing knowledge.1
R&D activities are thus an essential prerequisite for the emergence of new products and services. R&D expenditure is a suitable measure of the extent of R&D activities. R&D expenditure and activities by companies, universities and the state therefore provide important clues for assessing a country's technological performance. This section outlines how Germany compares internationally in terms of its R&D activities and which sectors of the economy are particularly research-intensive.
1 Vgl. OECD (2015): Frascati Manual. Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development. The Measurement of Scientific, Technological and Innovation Activities. Paris: OECD.