Report 2018

How to cite figures and tables:

Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (EFI), Berlin (Ed.) (2018): Research, innovation and technological performance in Germany - EFI Report 2018, EFI, Berlin.

Infographics

Infographic B1: Long-term developments of productivity and innovation

Infographic B2: Callenges of European R&I policy

Infographic B3: Autonomous systems

Figures

Fig. A 3-2: Development of the number of professors and the number of students at UASs

Fig. B 1-2: International comparison of annual TFP growth rates as persentages

Fig. B 1-3: Average annual TFP growth contributions in Germany as percentage points

Fig. B 1-4: Development of the innovator rate in Germany and Europe as percentages

Fig. B 1-5: Development of patent intensity in the OECD

Fig. B 2-1: Assignment of funds in important programmes of European research and innovation policy in €bn per annum

Tab. B 2-4: Comparison of grants between the 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7) and Horizon 2020 in €m

Tab. B 2-5: Companies receiving public innovation funding, by industry and source of funding, average 2006-204, as percentages and in absolute terms

Tab. B 2-6: Project cooperation partners of companies receiving funding, by source of funding (EU, federal) and funding period as percentages

Fig. B 3-2: Degrees of automation in driving 

Fig. B 3-3: Environmental and core technologies of autonomous systems

Fig. B 3-4: State of development of autonomous systems by components and areas of application

Fig. B 3-5: Duration until market maturity of autonomous systems (level 5) by area of application

Tab. B 3-7: Contributions to important AI conferences by country or region of author

Fig. B 3-8: Publications and top publications* in relation to the leading country in the respective area of application for selected countries 2002–2017

Fig. B 3-9: Germany's share of transnational patents by international comparison for the four areas of application of autonomous systems examined 2002–2016

Fig. C 1-1: Qualification levels of gainfully employed persons in selected EU countries in 2016 as percentages

Tab. C 1-2: Number of new tertiary students as a percentage of the relevant age group in selected OECD countries and China

Fig. C 1-3: School-leavers qualified for higher education in Germany, 1970 to 2025 (figures after 2017 are projections)

Tab. C 1-4: Number of first-time graduates and subject-structure rates

Fig. C 1-5: Foreign students at German tertiary education institutions

Tab. C 1-6: Participation of individuals and companies in further training as percentages

Fig. C 2-1: R&D intensity in selected OECD countries and China, 2006 to 2016 as percentage

Fig. C 2-2: State budget estimates for civil R&D

Tab. C 2-3: Distribution of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by performing sector in 2005 and 2015

Tab. C 2-4: R&D intensity of Germany's Länder in 2005 and 2015 as percentages

Tab. C 2-5: Internal corporate R&D expenduture by origin of funds, economic sector, company size and technology category in 2015

Fig. C 2-6: Internal corporate R&D expenditure as a percentage of turnover from the company's own products 2014, 2015 and 2016

Fig. C 3-1: Innovation intensity by European comparison in 2014 as percentages

Fig. C 3-2: Innovation intensity in industry and knowledge-intensive services in Germany as percentages

Fig. C 3-3: Percentage of turnover generated by new products in industry and knowledge-intensive services

Fig. C 3-4: Number of secretariats listed by the technical committees and subcommittees of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Fig. C 4-1: R&D spending in business sector directly and indirectly funded by the public sector in 2015 as a percentage of national GDP

Fig. C 4-2: Venture-capital investment as a percentage of national GDP in 2015 and 2016

Fig. C 4-3: Development of venture-capital investment in Germany 2007-2016 in €bn

Fig. C 5-1: Start-up rates in 2015 by international comparison as percentages

Fig. C 5-2: Start-up rates in Germany's knowledge economy 2006-2016 as percentages

Fig. C 5-3: Closure rates in Germany's knowledge economy 2006-2016 as percentages

Fig. C 5-4: Start-up rates by Länder 2014-2016 as percentages

Fig. C 6-1: Development of the number of transnational patent applications in selected countries over time

Tab. C 6-2: Absolute number, intensity and growth rates of transnational patent applications in the field of R&D-intensive technology in 2015

Fig. C 6-3: Development of the specialisation index in selected countries over time in the field of high-value technology

Fig. C 6-4: Development of the specialisation index in selected countries over time in the field of cutting-edge technology

Fig. C 7-1: Percentages of all publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2006 and 2016

Fig. C 7-2: International alignment (IA) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2006 and 2014 (index values)

Fig. C 7-3: Scientific regard (SR) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2006 and 2014 (index values)

Tab. C 8-1: Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) of selected countries in foreign trade in research-intensive goods 2005 to 2016

Fig. C 8-2: R&D-intensive industries and knowledge-intensive services as a percentage of value adde in 2000 and 2015

Fig. C 8-3: Development of gross value added in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany 2004-2015 in €bn

Fig. C 8-4: Development of the number of employees subject to social insurance contributions in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany 2009-2016