Report 2019

How to cite figures and tables:

Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (EFI), Berlin (Ed.) (2019): Research, innovation and technological performance in Germany - EFI Report 2019, EFI, Berlin.

Infographics

Infographic B1: The role of start-ups in the innovation system

Infographic B2: Innovations for the energy transition

Infographic B4: Digitalization of tertiary education institutions

Figures

Fig. A 1-1: Structure of the HTS 2025

Fig. A 2-1: Number of pulications in the fields of symbolic and neural AI 1988-2018

Fig. A 2-2: Number of publications in the fields of symbolic and neural AI by country (top 20) 1988–2018

Fig. A 3-2: Annual total funding volume for ongoing projects awarded by each programme in 2017 as a percentage of all funding

Fig. A 3-4: Structure of funding lines in international comparison in 2017 as a percentage of all funding

Tab. A 3-5: International comparison of funding characteristics of single project funding on the basis of new applications in 2017

Tab. A 3-7: International comparison of excellence rates and crown indicators of RCAPs as well as excellence rates and crown indicators of all publications and differences in 2015

Fig. B 1-1: Geographical distribution of funding cases for the EXIST Business Start-up Grant and the EXIST Transfer of Research programme as well as start-ups in the portfolio of the HTGF

Tab. B 1-2: Distribution of funding cases for the EXIST Business Start-up Grant and the EXIST Transfer of Research programme as well as start-ups in the portfolio of the HTGF across the Länder

Fig. B 1-3: Start-ups from non-university research institutions 2005–2017

Fig. B 1-4: Revenues from intellectual property rights 2005–2017 in €m

Fig. B 2-1: GHG emissions in Germany for 1990 and 2017, forecast of GHG emissions in Germany for 2020 and GHG emissions targets for Germany for 2020, 2030 and 2050

Fig. B 2-4: Technologies in the energy sector – significance for the energy transition and level of technological maturity

Fig. B 2-8: Technologies in the building sector – significance for the energy transition and level of technological maturity

Fig. B 2-10: Technologies in the transport sector – significance for the energy transition and level of technological maturity

Fig. B 2-12: Technologies in the industry – significance for the energy transition and level of technological maturity

Fig. B 3-2: How a transaction works — both with and without blockchain technology

Fig. B 4-4: Scope of associations and collaborative endeavours to digitalize German tertiary education institutions as percentages

Fig. C 1-1: Qualification levels of gainfully employed persons in selected EU countries in 2017 as percentages

Tab. C 1-2: Share of new tertiary students as a percentage of the relevant age group in selected OECD countries

Fig. C 1-3: School-leavers qualified for higher education in Germany 1970–2030 (figures for 2018 and later are projections)

Tab. C 1-4: Number of first-time graduates and subject-structure rate

Fig. C 1-5: Foreign students at German tertiary education institutions

Tab. C 1-6: Participation of individuals and companies in further training as percentages

Fig. C 2-1: R&D intensity in selected OECD countries and China 2007–2017 as percentages

Fig. C 2-2: State budget estimates for civil R&D

Tab. C 2-3: Distribution of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by performing sector in 2006 and 2016

Tab. C 2-4: R&D intensity of Germany’s Länder in 2006 and 2016 as percentages

Tab. C 2-5: Internal corporate R&D expenditure by origin of funds, economic sector, company size and technology category in 2015

Fig. C 2-6: Internal corporate R&D expenditure as a percentage of turnover from the company's own products 2014, 2015 and 2016

Fig. C 3-1: Innovation intensity by European comparison in 2016 as percentages

Fig. C 3-2: Innovation intensity in industry and business-oriented services in Germany as percentages

Fig. C 3-3: Percentage of turnover generated by new products in industry and business-oriented services

Fig. C 3-4: Number of secretariats listed by the technical committees and subcommittees of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Fig. C 4-1: R&D spending in business sector directly and indirectly funded by the public sector in 2015 as a percentage of national GDP

Fig. C 4-2: Venture-capital investment as a percentage of national GDP in 2016 and 2017

Fig. C 4-3: Development of venture-capital investment in Germany 2008–2017 in €bn

Fig. C 5-1: Rates of new businesses in 2016 by international comparison as percentages

Fig. C 5-2: Rates of new businesses in Germany’s knowledge-based economy 2007–2017 as percentages

Fig. C 5-3: Closure rates in Germany’s knowledge-based economy 2007–2017 as percentages

Fig. C 5-4: Rates of new businesses by Länder 2015–2017 as percentages

Fig. C 6-1: Development of the number of transnational patent applications in selected countries over time

Tab. C 6-2: Absolute number, intensity and growth rates of transnational patent applications in the field of R&D-intensive technology in 2016

Fig. C 6-3: Development of the specialization index in selected countries over time in the field of high-value technology

Fig. C 6-4: Development of the specialization index in selected countries over time in the field of cutting-edge technology

Fig. C 7-1: Percentages of all publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2007 and 2017

Fig. C 7-2: International alignment (IA) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2007 and 2015 (index values)

Fig. C 7-3: Scientific regard (SR) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2007 and 2015 (index values)

Tab. C 8-1: Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) of selected countries in foreign trade in research-intensive goods 2005–2017

Fig. C 8-2: R&D-intensive industries and knowledge-intensive services as a percentage of value added in 2000 and 2016

Fig. C 8-3: Development of gross value added in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany 2005–2016 in €bn

Fig. C 8-4: Development of the number of employees subject to social insurance contributions in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany 2010–2017