Report 2020

How to cite figures and tables:

Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (EFI), Berlin (Ed.) (2020): Research, innovation and technological performance in Germany - EFI Report 2020, EFI, Berlin.

Infographics

Infographic B1: East Germany as a location for innovation – 30 years after reunification

Infographic B2: Cybersecurity

Infographic B3: Exchange of knowledge and technology between Germany and China

Figures

Fig. B 1-2: Per capita expenditure on R&D by performing sector in east and west Germany 1997–2017 in €

Fig. B 1-4: Structurally adjusted deviation of innovation input indicators 1997–2017 in percentage points

Fig. B 1-5: Structurally adjusted deviation of innovation output indicators 1997–2017 in percentage points

Fig. B 1-6: Start-up intensity in knowledge-intensive services and R&D-intensive industry in east Germany (with and without Berlin) and west Germany 1997–2018

Fig. B 1-7: Federal R&D funding programmes (BMBF and BMWi) in the east German economy (with Berlin) 1990–2019

Fig. B 2-3: Impact of cyber threats on innovation activities

Fig. B 2-4: Measures taken by companies to minimize cyber risks

Fig. B 2-5: Number of transnational patents in the field of cybersecurity (top 10 countries and EU) 2000–2017

Fig. B 3-1: R&D expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product 2000–2017

Fig. B 3-2: Tertiary graduates per year as a percentage of the total population 2000–2017

Fig. B 3-3: Number of scientists per 100 employees 2000–2017

Fig. B 3-4: Number of scientific publications, fractional counting 2005–2018

Fig. B 3-5: Transnational patent applications 2005–2017

Fig. B 3-7: Total Chinese direct investment in Germany 2000–2017 in €bn

Fig. B 3-8: Percentage of German companies taken over by Chinese investors or with Chinese shareholdings by sector

Fig. B 3-9: R&D intensity of companies taken over by Chinese investors or with Chinese shareholdings, and of all companies in the German economy by sector, as percentages

Fig. B 3-10: Total German direct investment in China 2000–2017 in €bn

Fig. B 3-11: Total net direct investment by German companies in China 2000–2018 in €m

Fig. B 3-12: Number of takeovers of Chinese companies by European investors by selected countries of origin 2004–2018

Fig. B 3-13: Number of takeovers of Chinese companies by investors from Germany 2004–2018 by sector

Fig. C 1-1: Qualification levels of gainfully employed persons in selected EU countries in 2018 as percentages

Tab. C 1-2: Number of new tertiary students as a percentage of the relevant age group in selected OECD countries and China 2006–2017

Fig. C 1-3: School-leavers qualified for higher education in Germany 1970–2030 (figures for 2019 and later are projections)

Tab. C 1-4: Number of first-time graduates and subject-structure rate 2010–2018

Fig. C 1-5: Foreign students at German tertiary education institutions 2001–2019

Tab. C 1-6: Participation of individuals and companies in further training 2008–2018 as percentages

Fig. C 2-1: R&D intensity in selected OECD countries and China 2008–2018 as percentages

Fig. C 2-2: State budget estimates for civil R&D 2008–2018

Tab. C 2-3: Distribution of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by performing sector in selected OECD countries and China in 2007 and 2017

Tab. C 2-4: R&D intensity of Germany’s Länder in 2007 and 2017 as percentages

Tab. C 2-5: Internal corporate R&D expenditure by origin of funds, economic sector, company size and technology category in 2017

Fig. C 2-6: Internal corporate R&D expenditure as a percentage of turnover from the company's own products 2016–2018

Fig. C 3-1: Innovation intensity by European comparison in 2016 as percentages

Fig. C 3-2: Innovation intensity in industry and business-oriented services in Germany 2003–2018 as percentages

Fig. C 3-3: Percentage of turnover generated by new products in industry and business-oriented services 2003–2018

Fig. C 3-4: Number of secretariats listed by the technical committees and subcommittees of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Fig. C 4-1: R&D expenditure in the business sector directly and indirectly funded by the public sector in 2016 as a percentage of national gross domestic product

Fig. C 4-2: Venture-capital investment as a percentage of national gross domestic product in 2017 and 2018

Fig. C 4-3: Development of venture-capital investment in Germany 2009–2018 in €bn

Fig. C 5-1: Start-up rates in 2017 by international comparison as percentages

Fig. C 5-2: Start-up rates in Germany's knowledge-intensive sectors 2008–2018 as percentages

Fig. C 5-3: Closure rates in Germany's knowledge-intensive sectors 2008–2018 as percentages

Fig. C 5-4: Start-up rates by Länder 2016–2018 as percentages

Fig. C 6-1: Development of the number of transnational patent applications in selected countries 1995–2017

Tab. C 6-2: Absolute number, intensity and growth rates of transnational patent applications in the field of R&D-intensive technology in 2017

Fig. C 6-3: Development of the specialization index in selected countries over time in the field of high-value technology 1995–2017

Fig. C 6-4: Development of the specialization index in selected countries over time in the field of cutting-edge technology 1995–2017

Fig. C 7-1: Percentages of all publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2008 and 2018

Fig. C 7-2: International alignment (IA) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2008 and 2016 (index values)

Fig. C 7-3: Scientific regard (SR) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions in 2008 and 2016 (index values)

Tab. C 8-1: Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) of selected countries in foreign trade in research-intensive goods 2005–2018

Fig. C 8-2: R&D-intensive industries and knowledge-intensive services as a percentage of value added in 2000 and 2017

Fig. C 8-3: Development of gross value added in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany 2006–2017 in €bn

Fig. C 8-4: Development of the number of employees subject to social insurance contributions in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany 2011–2018 in millions